Pathping is a Windows based command-line tool used to provide information about the path data takes to its destination, network latency and network loss at intermediate hops between a source and destination.
Network Troubleshooting Dos Commands
Ping is the most important troubleshooting command and it checks the connectivity with the other computers. For example your system’s IP address is 10.10.10.10 and your network servers’ IP address is 10.10.10.1 and you can check the connectivity with the server by using the Ping command in following format.
At DOS prompt type Ping 10.10.10.1 and press enter
If you get the reply from the server then the connectivity is ok and if you get the error message like this “Request time out” this means the there is some problem in the connectivity with the server.
IPconfig is another important command in Windows. It shows the IP address of the computer and also it shows the DNS, DHCP, Gateway addresses of the network and subnet mask.
At DOS prompt type ipconfig and press enter to see the IP address of your computer.
At DOS prompt type inconfig/all and press enter to see the detailed information.
NSLOOKUP is a TCP/IP based command and it checks domain name aliases, DNS records, operating system information by sending query to the Internet Domain Name Servers. You can resolve the errors with the DNS of your network server
Hostname command shows you the computer name.
At DOS prompt type Hostname and press enter
NETSTAT utility shows the protocols statistics and the current established TCP/IP connections in the computer.
NBTSTAT helps to troubleshoot the NETBIOS name resolutions problems.
ARP displays and modifies IP to Physical address translation table that is used by the ARP protocols.
Finger command is used to retrieve the information about a user on a network.
Tracert command is used to determine the path of the remote system. This tool also provides the number of hops and the IP address of each hop. For example if you want to see that how many hops (routers) are involved to reach any URL and what’s the IP address of each hop then use the following command.
At command prompt type tracert www.yahoo.com you will see a list of all the hops and their IP addresses.
Traceroute is a very useful network debugging command and it is used in locating the server that is slowing down the transmission on the internet and it also shows the route between the two systems
Route command allows you to make manual entries in the routing table.
What is DNS?
Domain name system/server is used to translate the IP address into the hostname and hostname into the IP address. DNS is mostly used on the internet and the networks.
What is DHCP?
Dynamic host configuration protocol is used to dynamically assign the IP address to the networked computers and devices. DHCP is a network protocol that automatically assigns static and dynamic IP addresses from its own range.
What is a Router?
Router is the most important network device that is used to connect two logically and physically different networks. Router defines the short possible route for the data to reach its destination. A router works with built-in intelligent software known as routing table, which helps to determine the route between the two networks.
What is Gateway?
A gateway is software or a hardware that is used to connect the local area network with the internet. A gateway is a network entrance point and a router usually works as a gateway.
What is WLAN?
WLAN or Wireless local area network is simply a type of network that doesn’t use wired Ethernet connections for networking. WLAN uses wireless network devices such as wireless routers etc.
What is Subnet Mask?
A subnet mask is used to determine the number of networks and the number of host computers. Every class of the IP address uses the different range of the subnet mask. Subnet masks allow the IP based networks to be divided into the sub networks for performance and security purposes.
What is a MAC Address?
MAC address or Media Access control is a unique identifier of a computer device. The MAC address is provided by the manufacturer of the device. MAC addresses are 12 digital hexadecimal numbers.
What is an IP Address?
An IP address is a unique identifier of a computer or network device on the local area network, WAN or on internet. Every host computer on the internet must have a unique IP address. IP addresses on the internet are usually assigned by the local ISPs to which users are connected.
What is Wifi?
Wi Fi or wireless fidelity is a base band network technology that is used for the wireless data communication.
What is WiMax?
Wi Fi is a next form of the Wi fi. Wi max is a very high speed broadband network technology that is designed for the corporate offices, roaming and home users.
Name the Seven Layers of OSI Model
The seven layers of the OSI are Application, Presentation, Sessions, Transport, Network, Data Link and Physical layer.
What is LDAP?
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol is used to access the directory services from the Active directory in Windows operation systems.
What are the standard port numbers for SMTP, POP3, IMAP4, RPC, LDAP, and FTP?
SMTP – 25, POP3 – 110, IMAP4 – 143, RPC – 135, LDAP, FTP-21, HTTP-80
What is IPv6?
IP V6 is a next generation protocol that is used as an expansion of DNS.
What is UDP?
UDP or user datagram protocol is a connectionless protocol that is used to transfer the data without any error handling.
What is Firewall?
A firewall is usually a software program that is installed on the network server or gateway. The purpose of the firewall is to protect the network resources from the intruders and unauthorized persons.
What is Virtual Private Network (VPN) and how does it work?
VPN or virtual private network is used to connect two networks by means internet. VPN uses PPTP (point to point tunneling protocol) and other security procedures to make a secure tunnel on internet.
VOIP or voice over internet protocol is a technology that uses IP based networks such as internet or private networks to transmit the voice communication.
Define Bluetooth Technology
Bluetooth is a short range wireless technology that uses radio waves for communication. Many mobile phones, laptops, MP3 players have built in features of the Bluetooth.
What is a RAS server?
RAS or remote access server allows you to remote dial in through the desktop computers, laptops and GSM mobile phones.
What’s a Frame Relay?
Frame relay is high speed data communication technology that operates at the physical and data link layers of the OSI model. Frame relay uses frames for data transmission in a network.
What is IPv6?
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer IP standard used by electronic devices to exchange data across a packet-switched internetwork. It follows IPv4 as the second version of the Internet Protocol to be formally adopted for general use. ipv6 it is a 128 bit size address. This is total 8 octants each octant size is 16 bits separated with “:”, it is in hexa decimal format. These 3 types:
- unicast address
- multicast address
- anycast address
loopback address of ip v6 is ::1
What is subnet?
A subnet allows the flow of network traffic between hosts to be segregated based on a network configuration. By organizing hosts into logical groups, subnetting can improve network security and performance.
What is Subnet Mask?
A mask used to determine what subnet an IP address belongs to. An IP address has two components, the network address and the host address. For example, consider the IP address 150.215.017.009. Assuming this is part of a Class B network, the first two numbers (150.215) represent the Class B network address, and the second two numbers (017.009) identify a particular host on this network.
Subnetting enables the network administrator to further divide the host part of the address into two or more subnets. In this case, a part of the host address is reserved to identify the particular subnet. This is easier to see if we show the IP address in binary format.
What is Default Gateway?
a gateway is a device on a network that acts as an entrance to another network. In more technical terms, a gateway is a routing device that knows how to pass traffic between different subnets and networks. A computer will know some routes (a route is the address of each node a packet must go through on the Internet to reach a specific destination), but not the routes to every address on the Internet. It won’t even know all the routes on the nearest subnets. A gateway will not have this information either, but will at least know the addresses of other gateways it can hand the traffic off to. Your default gateway is on the same subnet as your computer, and is the gateway your computer relies on when it doesn’t know how to route traffic.
The default gateway is typically very similar to your IP address, in that many of the numbers may be the same. However, the default gateway is not your IP address.
Describe how the DHCP lease is obtained.
It’s a four-step process consisting of (a) IP request, (b) IP offer, © IP selection and (d) acknowledgement.
What’s the difference between forward lookup and reverse lookup in DNS?
Forward lookup is name-to-address, the reverse lookup is address-to-name.
How can you recover a file encrypted using EFS? Use the domain recovery agent.
What is LMHOSTS file?
It’s a file stored on a host machine that is used to resolve NetBIOS to specific IP addresses.
How can you force the client to give up the dhcp lease if you have access to the client PC?
OSI 7 Layers Reference Model For Network Communication
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a reference model developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) in 1984, as a conceptual framework of standards for communication in the network across different equipment and applications by different vendors. It is now considered the primary architectural model for inter-computing and internetworking communications. Most of the network communication protocols used today have a structure based on the OSI model. The OSI model defines the communications process into 7 layers, which divides the tasks involved with moving information between networked computers into seven smaller, more manageable task groups. A task or group of tasks is then assigned to each of the seven OSI layers. Each layer is reasonably self-contained so that the tasks assigned to each layer can be implemented independently. This enables the solutions offered by one layer to be updated without adversely affecting the other layers.
The OSI 7 layers model has clear characteristics. Layers 7 through 4 deals with end to end communications between data source and destinations. Layers 3 to 1 deal with communications between network devices.
The specific description for each layer is as follows:
Layer 7:Application Layer
Defines interface to user processes for communication and data transfer in network
Provides standardized services such as virtual terminal, file and job transfer and operations
Layer 6:Presentation Layer
Masks the differences of data formats between dissimilar systems
Specifies architecture-independent data transfer format
Encodes and decodes data; Encrypts and decrypts data; Compresses and decompresses data
Layer 5:Session Layer
Manages user sessions and dialogues
Controls establishment and termination of logic links between users
Reports upper layer errors
Layer 4:Transport Layer
Manages end-to-end message delivery in network
Provides reliable and sequential packet delivery through error recovery and flow control mechanisms
Provides connectionless oriented packet delivery
Layer 3:Network Layer
Determines how data are transferred between network devices
Routes packets according to unique network device addresses
Provides flow and congestion control to prevent network resource depletion
Layer 2:Data Link Layer
Defines procedures for operating the communication links
Detects and corrects packets transmit errors
Layer 1:Physical Layer
Defines physical means of sending data over network devices
Interfaces between network medium and devices
Defines optical, electrical and mechanical characteristics